(Vocational Education Or Applied General Education?)
"Vocational education or vocational education and training (VET) prepares trainees for jobs that are based on manual or practical activities, traditionally non-academic, and totally related to a specific trade, occupation, or vocation. It is sometimes referred to as technical education as the trainee directly develops expertise in a particular group of techniques or technology.
Vocational education may be classified as teaching procedural knowledge. This can be contrasted with declarative knowledge, as used in education in a usually broader scientific field, which might concentrate on theory and abstract conceptual knowledge, characteristic of tertiary education. Vocational education can be at the secondary or post-secondary level and can interact with the apprenticeship system. Increasingly, vocational education can be recognised in terms of recognition of prior learning and partial academic credit towards tertiary education (e.g., at a university) as credit; however, it is rarely considered in its own form to fall under the traditional definition of higher education.
Up until the end of the twentieth century, vocational education focused on specific trades such as, for example, those of automobile mechanic or welder, and it was therefore associated with the activities of lower social classes. As a consequence, it carries some social stigma. Vocational education is related to the age-old apprenticeship system of learning. Historical educational polarizations about the different natures and hierarchical values of general education vs. vocational vs. liberal education in the United states are reminiscent of the Dewey / Snedden debates in the first quarter of the 20th century.
The boundaries between vocational education and tertiary education are becoming more blurred. A number of public vocational training providers such as TAFE NSW, NMIT, BHI and WAI are now offering specialised Bachelor degrees in specific areas not being adequately provided by Universities. Such Applied Courses include in the areas of Design, Equine studies, Winemaking and viticulture, aquaculture, Information Technology, Music, Illustration, Culinary Management and many more. This trend is expected to continue and expand allowing more students, particularly low-socioeconomic and remote students, to access higher education". Source: Wiki: Vocational Education
Is Vocational Education Instrumentalist Education? - "Instrumental Education Describes learning which is undertaken not for its own sake but for some other purpose. For example, all vocational education is instrumental in that its purpose is to prepare the learner for a specific line of work and to improve their chances of employment". Ref: Instrumental - Developmental
Do People Study Medicine, Law or Science "for its own sake"?
Are they not aspiring to work in those fields?
Insn't all Formal Education Vocational Education? Why do students insist upon the issuing certificates? For Wall Decorations?
Isn't all Education Instrumental - Except For Some Non-Formal Education Programs?
(Increasingly more people are now taking Non-Formal Education Programs for Business or Vocational Purposes also.)
However, there is Good (Healthy) Instrumentalism and Not-So-Good (Unhealthy) Instrumentalism...
And, any Instrumentalism that is driven by Political Objectives alone is certainly very Questionable Instrumentalism.
In Indonesia prior to 1994 we had public schools (SMU) that delivered both "General Education" and "Vocational Education" subjects. This system was free of any feelings of descrimination or stigma, and all students could participate in an array of vocational subjects. However, in 1994 this all changed with the introduction of 2 new curriculums for a dual Senior Middle Education system (years 10-12) whereby we have two new categories of schools, Senior Middle Education Schools (SMA), and Senior Middle Education Vocational Schools (SMK).
Now (since 1994) we have a situation where:
If we are going to address the myriad of challenges facing this country we are going to need generations of innovative individuals who posess both creative and anylitical skills, and also have a sound understanding from applied (practical and contextual-based) studies.
- 70% of all graduates nationally from SMAs annually try to find work without any specific vocational skills training. And...
- Graduates from SMKs are receiving preparation for the workforce. However, they bear the stigma of having graduated from an "education for workers".
This is also a major issue for our universities because "60 Percent Of Higher Education Graduates Are Unemployed"... And it appears that most of the 40% of graduates that work, work outside their field of study... We need to ask, What Is The Purpose Of Higher Education In Indonesia? Ref: http://Menganggur.Com
In our vocational education schools (SMK) we, as in our general education schools (SMA), need to focus upon methodologies that "Develop The Person as a Creative Individual" so that we can maximize the potential of our vast human resources.
(Methodology Senior Secondary Vocational School)
"JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com - The learning and teaching process in schools continues to bore students and not inspire enjoyment of the process because teachers are still too dominant in the classroom.
"Students aren't given the freedom to express their individual and different points of view which is killing their creativity." -- Fasli Jalal
"Students aren't given the freedom to express their individual and different points of view which is killing their creativity," stated the Deputy Minister of National Education Mr. Fasli Jalal during a Professional Teacher Education discussion panel at the Faculty of Teaching and Education at the Catholic Universiy, Atma Jaya, on Saturday (4/12/2010)"
What is the main problem associated with the implementation of quality education in Indonesia (besides corruption), yes 'Students aren't given the freedom to express their individual and different points of view which is killing their creativity'. - Can we possibly hope that our graduates will be Active (let alone Pro-Active), Creative, Independant, and Capable of contributing to the country's development through Passive-Learning?
We have provided many examples, links to useful information, and manuals at our downloads page however we believe that many more teachers will begin to participate in the process if it is broken down into simpler, more visual stages that will hopefully stimulate a more rapid understanding of the basic issues, and more rapid movement nationally towards implementation of basic and effective learning methodologies. It is also hoped that teachers will more rapidly come to identify and focus upon strategies that will lead to Personal Development, and the development of Creative, innovative, and Independant Learners (develop the individual).
We are attempting to help teachers by providing simple steps that they can begin to implement (integrate) into their current methodologies without disturbing existing learning programmes, merely by the addition of strategies that will lead to more effective learning within those programmes.
The key to achieving World Standard quality education is Active-Learning (Student Centred) that is Contextual (Has Meaning and Useful Outcomes - Relevance).
First Step: Move towards learning that is more focussed upon the learners themselves. Rather than just delivering information and materials to the students (spoon-feeding), more frequently give the students the task of deciding upon solutions themselves through discussion, minor research activities, utilization of their own personal background experiences, etc. (problem solving).
Step 2: As time progresses, try increasing the role of your community in learning activities (including school grounds and local community facilities) as a resource for learning experiences (Learning that is Contextual). Step-by-step try moving towards learning activities that are partly or even wholly planned by the students themselves (given the learning objectives to be achieved). Slowly move towards stimulating Independancy in Learning and Student Participation in the Planning of Learning Activities.
Step 3: Try to progressively implement the use of teaching aids (and where useful and available) Audio-Visual Aids into the learning process. These can be; teaching aids that are available or realia, aids that you the teacher create yourself, or aids that the students themselves create as part of the learning process. Simple aids and low-technology are very useful for stimulating "Discovery Learning". Simple aids tend to stimulate Imagination, Discussion, Negotion Skills, and Creativity in students, whereas higher technologies tend to move more towards the "spoon-feeding of information" and are usually less effective.
Step 4: Gradually bring your classrom to life and make it a more conducive learning environment. Use the space available on walls and the ceiling for displaying student products. The "Era of Clean Walls" (paint only) has long since passed. Like the "Era of Students Sitting Sweetly" - only an unpleasant memory. Now we utilize all available space on walls and ceilings for exhibiting the products of our students.
Besides improving the classroom environment it shows that we are proud of their work and provides encouragement for the students themselves. It is important that we provide sufficient categories for displays so that all our students receive an opportunity for their work to be on display. "Nothing Succeeds Like Success" and if our students feel that their work is valued then they feel successful.
A Wonderful Motivator.....
Step 5: Once teachers have tried some of the steps above and feel like they want to learn more about PAKEM (Active, Creative, Joyful and Effective Learning), or further want to develop themselves as professional teachers they can access further information and training (which has been fully tested in the field) from the PDF files above.
However, we recommend that teachers try to integrate strategies 1 to 4 into their existing teaching strategies and learning programs before reading the documents provided above (Step 5). As is the case with our students, "Nothing Succeeds Like Success", we also believe that once teachers have experienced the excitement and rewards that come from trying steps 1 to 4 they will more eagerly embrace the challenges of implementing "Active, Creative, Joyful and Effective Learning" in their classrooms..
SMU Negeri Tiga Raksa : "Many of the teachers are young and all came from central Java. They believed that the training from the IKIP Yogyakarta was an excellent program and prepared them well professionally. The lack of teaching positions in central Java caused them to consider west Java as an alternative place to teach. The youthfulness and idealistic perceptions that the young teachers brought to the school added significantly to the adaptive nature of the school to address a changing environment." More Information
SMU 2 Wonosari : "Teacher attitudes have improved significantly and teacher attendance has increased. They have become more supportive of students and enthusiastic for teaching. Through the headmaster?s encouragement they have become more aware of creative methods of instruction. When attempting new approaches in the classrooms teachers are responsible for providing sufficient effort to truly evaluate their effectiveness. Approaches that are tried and found not to be effective are discontinued, while effective approaches are encouraged and supported by the headmaster. This has resulted in a more professional attitude towards teachers and has contributed significantly to improving instruction within several subject areas. Teachers are pleased with opportunity to try-out or test new theories and enjoy being at school, often till late in the afternoon. There is a sense of community among the teachers now. Those teachers who are interested in a Masters (S2) degree are supported by school administration." More Information
SMU 23 Bandung : "Teachers used to feel skeptical and uncertain about the available facilities and limited staffing. As teachers they felt professionally inferior until about 3 years ago. However, the present headmaster provided them with the vision for school development. As a result, they have become more enthusiastic for teaching. They are now more disciplined and supportive of students? learning. Students feel that teachers, especially the young teachers take better care of them now, compared to before. Teachers used to manage 45 students in a class in double shifts, but now teach 40 students in a class. They have closer communication with parents about student and school matters. Communication among teachers has also been more active, and they encourage one another to initiate new ideas." More Information
SMU Negeri 1 Mojoagung : "Teachers seem to be more motivated to teaching although they tend to commit themselves more to the EBTANAS subjects, and less to non-EBTANAS subjects. They have also improved relationships with parents by talking with the parents directly concerning students? progress. Every teacher is assigned extra work by the headmaster and receives extra salary. They, especially female teachers, feel happy because not only are they receiving an extra salary, but they feel honored by the extra responsibility. Communication with the teachers has improved due to regular teacher meetings held once a cawu. However, informal meetings seem more beneficial to the teachers." More Information
Certificate of Proficiency from Education Indonesia Network (Pendidikan Network Indonesia) As an enticement to encourage teachers to learn more about Active-Learning and participate in PAKEM programs we would like to provide in-school basic assessment services for teachers and also award teachers with a certificate upon successful demonstration of achievent of the basic teaching skills in their classrooms. Our intention is that these certificates will be awarded free of charge to teachers in Indonesian Primary and Secondary Schools (We are currently looking for a sponsor).
Under the umbrella of Education (Pendidikan) Network Indonesia I have created and maintained a continually growing network of websites (in Indonesian language) for the past 12 years (Currently around 150 websites, mainly related to Education and Technology issues). These websites have been fully developed by me personally and funded from my personal funds and personal income. However, in order to be able to conduct activities in the field, like those mentioned above, I require the support of a sponsor, either local or overseas. If you feel that your organization or AID program would like to support this program please contact me personally at Sponsor@Metodologi.Com or Phone: +62818 1949 00 All opportunities offered by sponsors will be given serious consideration.
(Besides Eradicating Corruption)
Here are some headlines from articles in local newspapers:
Tens of thousands of schools are in very poor condition and many classrooms are collapsing, including 70% of the schools in Jakarta, 30,000 villages are not connected To Electricity, 55 million people in our country do not have "access" to safe water supplies, Corruption Is In All Levels Of Education Implementation, Our National Exam Doesn't Encourage Creativity in Learning, we need to Stop The Curriculum Disadvantaging Our Students, 70% of Our High-School Graduates are Looking For Work Without Skills Training, Teacher Skills Need to Be Improved, Thousands of Children with a Disability are not Being Looked After, Quality Education Is Only For The Rich, and .........
Sorry, we are currently writing the content for this
Clearly, if we are going to formulate a holistic program for improving the quality of education in Indonesia we must be certain that the strategies that we adopt address the whole spectum of issues for all students (over 50,000,000 - 50 million) in Indonesia.
However, the main priorities must be the establishment of learning environments that are safe and conducive for learning (including electricity and clean water supplies) in all schools (almost 300,000 schools), and we urgently need to implement methodology based upon Active and Contextual Learning in order to produce the talented individuals that we need to address the myriad of issues confronting this country.
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